by Nicolás van der Maesen


La toma de decisiones es la clave administrativa en cualquier empresa. En la mayoría de las

organizaciones las responsabilidades suelen estar divididas entre “los que se encargan de pensar” y

aquellos que “ejecutan las decisiones tomadas”.

Es usual que la toma de decisiones de las empresas esté jerarquizada en los directores de departamento o área, o incluso más arriba. De este modo las decisiones no se toman donde ocurre el hecho ni con la inmediatez que se requiere, creando cuellos de botella y forzando a los responsables a dedicar su tiempo a tomar decisiones que no deberían tomar en vez de a liderar su campo de trabajo. Esto plantea además una serie de problemas:

• La toma de decisiones se prolonga en el tiempo, lo que produce que en muchas ocasiones se pierda su efectividad.

• Las decisiones se toman generalmente por personas que no poseen todo el “conocimiento”

• Se priva a la persona que realiza el trabajo de tomar decisiones sobre su propio trabajo, perjudicando el nivel de motivación que tiene esta persona. Sin embargo, un problema mucho más grave se genera en las empresas cuando los directores de departamento no toman las decisiones que caerían en su jurisdicción sino que elevan las consultas a sus propios superiores (proceso de FLOTACIÓN).

Esto sucede algunas veces por dudas respecto al apoyo con el que se cuenta de parte de la dirección por no estar adecuadamente delimitados o comprendidos los límites de actuación de cada puesto, y otras veces porque la persona que ocupa el puesto rechaza la responsabilidad a su cargo.

Pasa además de que en general la dirección no considera el tema como prioritario, dejando los asuntos sin resolver. Las respuestas no están por tanto disponibles en tiempo y forma para la persona que tiene que actuar, y ante la urgencia de las necesidades operativas, las decisiones terminan siendo tomadas por los empleados de la primera línea (proceso de DECANTACIÓN).

Estas decisiones se toman sin contar con el apoyo ni la visión estratégica de la gerencia. Si los resultados son positivos, el tema se ignora hasta la siguiente oportunidad, pero si son negativos la culpa recae sobre quien tomo la responsabilidad de actuar en lo que creyó eran los intereses
de la empresa. Este proceso genera incertidumbre y desmotivación en los empleados, y mina la credibilidad de los supervisores intermedios.


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